Reason For Drug Testing Available Nationwide
Pre-Employment Drug Testing
This is by far the most common type of drug test used by businesses. It has the advantage of being inexpensive, since only one test per employee needs to be paid for by the company.
If a supervisor who has received required training observes behavior or other signs of possible alcohol or controlled substance abuse immediately before, during, or immediately after performing their duties, the employee is directed to undergo testing. The person observing the behavior must notify Human Resources of the need for testing. and complete the Reasonable Suspicion Drug and Alcohol Testing form.
Random Drug Testing
This is both the most effective drug deterrence method and the most controversial type of drug testing. Random drug testing is mandated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, which means that many employers in the USA have no choice but to implement random drug testing programs. Even when random drug testing is not legally required, many organizations use small scale random drug testing as an effective deterrence.
Post-Incident Drug & Alcohol Testing
The point of this test is to protect the company from liability in the event that the individual is under the influence at the time of the accident. If drugs or alcohol are detected in any significant quantity, the argument can be made in court that the individual was intoxicated on the job, and for that reason, the company should not be held liable for injuries sustained by the employee. This argument, however, can only reasonably be made if blood or oral fluid / saliva testing is used. Urine, hair, or sweat based testing can only detect past drug use. Depending upon the facts of each case, this may help a company avoid litigation completely or may do nothing to help their case. DUI testing would also fall into this category. Another time this type of test may be used is if an employee shows up for work intoxicated, has alcohol on his or her breath, or appears to be impaired in some other way. The goal of these tests is to protect the entity from litigation, so they are only given on an as needed basis.
It should be noted that in most areas, blood testing is the only legally defensible means for detecting drug use after an incident, although saliva testing is gaining acceptance. The sample should follow chain of custody requirements and should always be sent to a lab after collection. Positive on-site tests that may affect an employee's position or situation should always be followed up with a laboratory test before any action is taken against the employee. Laboratory tests (urine or blood) are the only legally recognized tests in most states as well as in most non-U.S. countries.
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